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Information on Symposia per Science Theme





Theme No.

Theme Title

Number of Symposia proposed

Symposia Title

Symposia Conveners

Biographical sketch of the Conveners

Keywords

Abstract

27

Rock Deformation and Rheology


Prof. M. A. Mamtani

mamtani@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in

(India)


Prof. Anupam Chattopadhyay

anupamchatto@gmail.com

(India)


Prof. Rodolfo Carosi

rodolfo.carosi@unito.it

(Italy)




6

Field Structures – Macro to Meso Scale Deformation Processes

Bernhard Grasemann bernhard.grasemann@univie.ac.at (Austria)


T. K. Biswal

(India)


1. Prof. Bernhard Grasemann from Vienna (Austria) has worked extensively in the Himalaya and has made fundamental contributions in Structural Geology.

2. Prof. T.K.Biswal is a well-established name in the field of Structural Geology with experience of working in Geological Survey of India as well as in academia (IIT Bombay, India).

Structural Geology, field geology, ductile and brittle deformation

Although sophisticated analytical instrumentation has taken over many aspects of high-resolution geological analysis, field geology remains to be the foundation of most structural geology investigations. Interpretations based on structures/fabric that are visible to the human eye in the field, continue to be the first step in the study of deformed rocks. From the unravelling of superposed deformation, to the analysis of strain, field studies have been of primary importance in structural geology. In today’s modern times, structural geology techniques in the field become more and more supported by useful tools like tablet computers, terrestrial laser scanners or unmanned aerial vehicles. India is blessed with a variety of deformed terrains ranging in age from Archaean (Dharwar, Singhbhum, Bundelkhand) through Proterozoic (Aravalli-Delhi, Eastern Ghats, Central India Tectonic zone, Southern Granulite belt) to Phanerozoic (Himalaya orogen). These are replete with shear zones, ductile and brittle structures and have been a centre of attraction for field studies by Structural Geologists from all over the world. Many fundamental aspects of structural geology have been established exclusively based on analysis of field structures in rocks of ancient and modern orogens like the Caledonides, Variscan or Alpine-type orogens. Many processes with implications to kinematics and large scale tectonics and geodymanics have been envisaged based on field structures. This symposium intends to invite abstracts on “Field Structures-Macro to meso scale deformation processes”. It is expected that this will attract structural geologists who use field data to infer processes in polydeformed terrains and carry out kinematics as well as dynamic analyses using orientations of visible field structures.

Rheology and Deformation Mechanisms in the Earth

Nibir Mandal nibirmandal@yahoo.co.in

(India)


Susan Ellis

(New Zealand)


Joel Sarout (Australia)


Santanu Misra (India)


1. Prof. Nibir Mandal (Jadavpur University, India) has worked extensively on experimental rock deformation and numerical modeling. His research has contributed significantly to understanding of geodynamic processes and rheology of earth.

2. Dr. Susan Ellis is a Principal Scientist and Geodynamic Modeller at GNS Science, New Zealand.

3. Dr. Joel Sarout is a Senior Research Scientist at CSIRO, Perth (Australia). He leads the Rock Proerties team.

4. Dr. Santanu Misra (IIT Kanpur, India) has established an experimental rock deformation facility in his institute and has contributed significantly to the understanding of deep crustal processes.

Rheology, deformation mechanisms, experimental modeling

The deformation of rocks in response to tectonic stresses (rheology) is largely controlled by their ambient conditions (frequency and amplitude of stress perturbation, temperature, presence of fluids etc.), physical properties of the rocks and many other geological factors, such as synkinematic mineral reactions. The processes involved in rock deformation can be observed at multiple scales through a variety of mechanisms, ranging from brittle micro-fracturing to large- scale tectonic faulting (seismic and/or aseismic slip), crystal-plastic creep, stress-induced solid- state diffusion, partial-melting, and fluid flow. Such processes play a critical role in governing the Earth’s deep-rooted dynamics, and shaping its surface morphology. This session on Rheology and Deformation Mechanisms is designed to present and discuss current research and knowledge of the diverse processes of Earth deformation, particularly emphasizing role of transient rheology and resultant structures at varied scales. The session will bridge studies from micro-mechanisms of crystal deformation to large-scale tectonics, shallow brittle faulting to deeper ductile flow, using evidence from theoretical, numerical, experimental and natural data and observations.

Fabric Analysis – Past, Present and Future

Richard Law rdlaw@vt.edu

(USA)


Toru Takeshita (Japan)


Koushik Sen

(India)


1. Prof. Richard Law from Virginia Tech (USA) has made fundamental contributions to the analysis of deformed rocks using crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO).

2. Prof. Toru Takeshita from Hokkaido (Japan) is well-known for the study of quartz CPO and their use in understanding deformation conditions.

3. Dr. Koushik Sen is a scientist at WIHG, Dehradun (India) who has done extensive fabric analysis using microstructures and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS).

Microstructure, deformation processes, AMS, CPO, EBSD

Fabric analysis is critical in deciphering mechanisms and microscale processes that operate in deformed rocks. Challenging problems such as identifying monoclinic vs. triclinic shear zones or host vs. recrystallized quartz grains require detailed investigation of microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO). Microstructures are a direct indicator of the conditions of deformation (pressure/temperature/strain rate) and also provide geologists with kinematic information that can be eventually useful in interpreting larger scale structural and tectonic processes. Since the beginning of the 21st century, fabric analyses have been performed using both; 1) relatively recently developed techniques involving, for example, SEM-Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), SEM and Microprobe-based Cathodoluminescence, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS), Computer-Integrated Polarization (CIP) microscopy and, now less commonly, 2) older techniques such as measurement of CPO by Universal Stage and X-ray Texture Goniometry. It is therefore prudent to bring together structural geologists who use different fabric-analysis tools and techniques under one roof. This will provide a platform for geoscientists from all over the world to look at fabric data from a variety of geological terrains and collected using different analytical methods. Moreover, this will provide an opportunity to discuss the pros-and-cons of different methods of fabric analysis, thus providing the present and future generation with a direction for their research.

Structural Control on Fluid Flow and Mineralization

Paul D. Bons paul.bons@uni-tuebingen.de (Germany)


Tridib Kumar Mondal (India)


Sivaji Lahiri

(India)


1. Prof. Paul D. Bons is a Professor of Structural Geology in Eberhard Karls University Tübingen (Germany). He has vast experience in working on processes that lead to vein formation and their kinematics in different parts of the world.

2. Dr. T.K. Mondal is an Assistant Professor in Jadavpur University (Kolkata, India). He teaches Structural Geology and has contributed significantly to the understanding of vein emplacement and gold mineralization in Gadag region (Dharwar craton).

3. Mr. Sivaji Lahiri is presently a research fellow in IIT Kharagpur. He is the first person in India, and one of the few in the world, to have quantified state of stress using vein orientations.

Structural Geology, fluid flow, mineralization, veins

Most crustal-scale fluid flow is strongly influenced by the stress state, fluid pressure distribution and pre-existing fractures/foliations. Studies on such aspects are important to decipher the mechanisms of the hydrothermal fluid flow that lead to the formation of economic and non-economic the vein and breccia deposits. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanics of structural controls on fluid flow and mineralization. In this context, the integration of results from various research domains in earth sciences, structural geology, mineralogy, geophysics, geochemistry, modelling) is the pre-requisite to understand the mechanics of the complex processes responsible for fluid flow and mineralization. This session aims to bring together the communities working on crustal-scale fluid flow with the objective to promote a scientific interaction for understanding the role of geological structures in fluid flow and mineralization. We encourage the presentation of contributions (both oral and posters) showing how multi-methodological and multi-disciplinary approaches improve the knowledge of structural control on fluid flow and mineralization.

Extrapolating Experimental Rock Deformation Results to Field Structures

Alison Ord alison.ord@uwa.edu.au

(Australia)


Santanu Bose

(India)


H.B. Srivastava (India)


J.H. Kruhl

(Germany)


Virginia G. Toy

(New Zealand)


1. Prof. Alison Ord (UWA, Australia) has a vast experience in various aspects of Structural Geology – from modelling of natural systems to experimental to field geology. She has also co-authored a book of Structural Geology.

2. Prof. Santanu Bose (Kolkata, India) is an experimental structural geologist who has made significant contributions to the understanding of structures in fold and thrust belts.

3. Prof. H.B. Srivastava (Varanasi, India) has vast experience in field geology as well as experimental studies and also microstructures.

4. Prof. J.H. Kruhl (Munich, Germany) is a very renowned structural geologist who has done extensive work on rock textures and well as anisotropy quantification in natural systems.

5. Dr. Virginia Toy (Otago, New Zealand) does extensive work on shear zones and faults for which she employs a variety of tolls including fieldwork and EBSD.

Experimental rock deformation, strain rate, field structures

This symposium, entitled aims to provide a common discussion platform for experimentalists, modellers and field geologists. We observe geological structures, and from them, we aim to decode the rheology of the rocks and understand the geological processes involved in their formation. One of the ways by which we enhance our understanding of the processes and mechanisms that lead to the formation of structures in naturally deformed rocks is to explore deformation in the laboratory. These experiments may be analogue or computational. They are typically performed at relatively high strain rates with the results subsequently extrapolated to natural strain rates. We invite contributions from geoscientists carrying out relevant field and experimental studies, at various temporal and spatial scales, to help geologists appreciate the conditions that lead to development of various brittle and ductile structures. We also encourage contributions that explore the extrapolation of experiments to natural strain rates, to mineral assemblages (rather than single phase aggregates), and to rocks undergoing chemical reactions during deformation.

Structural Geology and Society - Restoration, Geothermal Energy and Hydrocarbons

Rosalda Punturo punturo@unict.it (Italy)


Dominico Liotta (Italy)


Chris Hilgers (Germany)


Susanta Kumar Samanta

(India)


Sandeep Bhatt (India)


1. Dr. Rosalda Punturo (Catania, Italy) does lot of petrophysical research on rocks from shear zones and uses petrography for studies dealing with restoration of heritage sites.

2. Prof. Dominico Liotta (Bari, Italy) has vast experience in carrying out structural geological investigations in different terrains and working on problems dealing with geothermal areas.

3. Prof. Christoph Hilgers (Karlsruhe, Germany) has carried out extensive research on formation of veins and structure of reservoir rocks.

4. Prof. Susanta Kumar Samanta (Kolkata, India) has carried out structural geological studies involving numerical modelling as well as studies on landslides and seismic hazard analysis.

5. Mr. Sandeep Bhatt (Kharagpur, India) does research involving analysis of fabric in rocks and applies methods such as micro-CT to analyse fractures and structures in rocks.

Structural Geology, Restoration, Geothermal Energy, Hydrocarbons

This symposium invites contributions dealing with the integration of various approaches which, starting from structural investigations, affect society and increase awareness in population. Contributions dedicated to a profound understanding of structural Earth system processes as well as its utilization are welcome. This may include the structural and petrophysical heterogeneity during the sustainable exploitation of geothermal resources (from low- to high temperature conditions), hydrocarbon and mineral resources exploration, subsurface sequestration, application of structural geology in study of natural hazards such as landslides, as well as the restoration and preservation of heritage sites.