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Information on Symposia per Science Theme

Theme No.

Theme Title

Number of Symposia proposed

Symposia Title

Symposia Conveners

Biographical sketch of the Conveners




Kimberlites, Xenoliths and Diamonds: Snapshots of the Earth’s Mantle

Dr. S. Ravi


Dr. E.V.S.S.K. Babu


Dr. Fareeduddin


Dr. Abhijit Mukherjee


Prof. Sebastian Tappe

(South Africa)


Exploration and Mining for Kimberlites

Biplob Chatterjee


There is a unique connection between India and diamond. All through the history India dominated diamond production. Presently, nine out of ten diamonds recovered from diamond mines in different parts of world enters India for cutting and polishing before they travel to international market. Indian lapidary is the best in the world, particularly outstanding in handling the small size stones. It employs about a million people and continues to earn significant chunk of foreign exchange to the country.

Often unique and innovative methodologies are warranted for exploration strategies for kimberlites and related rocks as source of diamonds. This is largely due to geology of a terrain and emplacement mechanism of the kimberlite as well as its geometry.

This symposium will address current geological, geophysical, geochemical exploration tools for discovering kimberlites. Innovative multi-disciplinary methodologies from specific case histories of successful exploration programs are expected to be discussed.

Emplacement of Kimberlites and related rocks

Barbara Scott


Understanding the emplacement processes and mechanisms of kimberlites and related rocks have an impact on the economics of the mining operations. In order to better constrain the mining conditions, predicatability and economics of operations, it is crucial to understand the emplacement processes.

The architecture of kimberlite pipes, sheets, dykes etc. is significant in terms of mine design processes. Orebody geometry, contact zones, internal structures occurrence of country rock xenoliths could directly influence pit wall stability, underground mining method selection.

The objective of this symposium is to illustrate some of the relevant mining issues and help to justify emplacement model studies that are vital for the understanding of primary diamond deposits.

The scientific aspects of the emplacement mechanism of the kimberlites and related rocks such as role of volatiles, composition of melts and constituent minerals would also be discussed in this symposium

Petrology of Kimberlites and related rocks

S. C. Patel


The petrology of kimberlites and related rocks has direct bearing on the formation of their enigmatic origin. The nomenclature and classification of the kimberlites and related rocks are crucial in understanding their genesis and emplacement processes.

The constituent mineralogy and chemistry of the kimberlites and related rocks also has bearing on the diamond potentiality of the kimberlites in terms of ambient oxygen fugacity conditions, diamond resorption rates and local geotherms.

These aspects would form the primary areas for the scientific discussion during the symposium.

Mafic, Ultramafic Xenoliths and Xenocrysts: Physical and Chemical Architecture of the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM)

Stephen Haggerty


Understanding the sub-continental lithosperic mantle (SCLM) is crucial as any perturbations in it could result in large scale volcanism, magmatism and tectonism.

This symposium will address lateral and vertical heterogeneities within the SCLM from different cratonic blocks of India and the world based on the xenoliths and xenocrysts from the kimberlites and related rocks emplaced through the geological time scale. Additional point of discussion will be large-scale thermal perturbations during the geological past that include juvenile crustal additions and recycling events based on petrological, geochemical and isotopic studies on xenoliths, xenocrysts.

Deep Mantle Processes: Petrological, Geochemical and Isotopic Studies from Mantle Xenoliths and Xenocrysts

Sebastian Tappe (South Africa)

Mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts from kimberlites are considered to be “real time snap shots” into the inaccessible deep mantle. Although Geophysics offers current day insights into the mantle, kimberlite-borne xenoliths and xenocrysts are probably the only source to understand physico-chemical processes in deep mantle. Studies on these mantle representatives from cratons world over during the last few decades provided great insights into the mantle processes such as sources of thermal anomalies, generation of magmas and their crystallisation, emplacement of mantle-derived melts, recycling of the continental masses, metasomatism etc. The main aim of this symposium is to review the latest on the above aspects.

Recipes for Diamonds: Evidences from Fluids and Inclusions



Diamond is an exotic mineral from the time immemorial. The formation and stability of diamonds and their transport to the surface always attracted the attention of geoscientists. Understanding the recipes for the diamonds within the mantle such as parental fluids, conditions for the formation of diamonds and crystallisation mechanisms and stability conditions is the primary theme of this symposium. The studies on the source of carbon both crustal and mantle-derived would be discussed in this symposium. Mineral, metallic and fluid inclusions in diamonds as proxies to understand the deep mantle processes during their crystallisation would be another aspect for discussion.